A Guide To Ingredients

About Bread Flour
     Pompadour Au Chocolat and Whole Wheat Herb Onion Bread
About Yeast
     Oatmeal Wheat Bread and Sweet Lemon Bread
Other Bread Essentials
     Sour Cream Cranberry Rye Bread and Mexican "Hogan" Bread
About Making Bread
     Bo-Pol Bread and Poppy Seed Bread
Bread Making Tips
     Orangy-Anise Honey-Wheat Bread and Jay's Favorite Bread

About Bread Flour

Flours react differently in their ability to absorb moisture. Depending on humidity and temperature, the amount of flour needed in a recipe may vary by as much as a cup or two. Therefore, the amount of flour called for in a recipe is always approximate. It is best to start with a smaller amount of flour and slowly add more while kneading to achieve a smooth, satiny textured dough.

There are several types of flours used for bread making. The primary difference between flours is their protein content. When mixed with liquid, certain proteins form gluten which gives an elastic quality to dough. Gluten provides the framework for dough to rise by stretching and trapping the gas bubbles given off by yeast as it grows. The type of wheat, where it is grown, and the milling process all influence the amount of gluten. The higher the gluten content, the more volume the bread will have. Secondary differences are taste and texture.

The most commonly used flours for bread baking include:

All-Purpose Flour, a blend of hard and soft wheat flours, is suitable for yeast breads as well as quick breads and most cakes.

Bread Flour, with its high gluten content, results in bread with good volume. Dough made with bread flour should be kneaded longer than dough made from all-purpose flour to fully develop the gluten.

Whole Wheat Flour, which contains the entire wheat kernel, adds a distinctive "nutty" taste to doughs. Some all-purpose flour is often added to it to lighten the dough and yield a larger volume. Whole wheat flour should always be stored in the refrigerator to prevent rancidity.

Rye Flour, limited in gluten, is usually combined with all-purpose, whole wheat or bread flours to improve volume and texture.


Pompadour Au Chocolat

One large chocolate macaroon.

  • 1 package active dry yeast
  • 1/4 cup warm water (105 degrees F to 115 degrees F)
  • 2 cups plus 1 tablespoon sugar
  • 3 cups all-purpose flour
  • 3/4 cup milk, scalded and cooled to lukewarm
  • 1/2 teaspoon salt
  • 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon
  • 1 teaspoon baking soda
  • 3/4 cup butter or margarine
  • 2/3 cup cocoa
  • 1/2 cup boiling water
  • 3 eggs
  • 2 teaspoons Amaretto liqueur
  • 1/2 teaspoon coconut extract
  • 1 cup chopped blanched almonds
  • 1 cup coconut

Dissolve yeast in warm water in warmed bowl. Add 1 tablespoon sugar, 2 cups flour, and milk. Attach bowl and flat beater. Turn to speed 4 and beat 2 minutes. Transfer mixture to a clean bowl; cover and let rise in warm place, free from draft, about 45 minutes.

Place remaining flour, salt, cinnamon, baking soda, and butter in clean bowl. Attach bowl and flat beater. Turn to speed 2 and mix 1 minute. Remove mixture from bowl and set aside.

Dissolve cocoa in boiling water and cool to lukewarm; set aside. Place remaining sugar and eggs in bowl. Attach bowl and flat beater. Turn to speed 4 and beat 1 minute. Stop and scrape bowl. Turn to speed 6 and beat 1 minute. Reduce to speed 2 and add cocoa mixture, Amaretto liqueur, and coconut extract. Mix 1 minute. Continuing on speed 2 gradually add yeast mixture and then butter/flour mixture. Increase to speed 4 and beat 1 minute. Stop and scrape bowl. Turn to stir speed and add almonds and coconut, mixing just until blended, about 15 seconds.

Pour batter into a greased and floured 10-inch tube pan. Let rise, uncovered, 2 hours or until doubled in bulk. Bake at 350 degrees F for 45 to 50 minutes. Cool in pan 15 minutes, then remove and cool on wire rack.

Yield: One 10-inch cake.


Whole Wheat Herb Onion Bread

  • 2 packages active dry yeast
  • 2-1/2 cups warm water (105 degrees F to 115 degrees F)
  • 3 tablespoons honey
  • 2 tablespoons molasses
  • 2 teaspoons salt
  • 2 tablespoons vegetable oil
  • 1-1/3 cups chopped onion
  • 2 tablespoons dill weed
  • 3 tablespoons basil
  • 2 tablespoons garlic powder, optional
  • 7 to 7-1/2 cups whole wheat flour

Dissolve yeast in warm water in warmed bowl. Add honey molasses, salt, oil, onion, dill weed, basil, garlic powder and 6 cups flour. Attach bowl and dough hook. Turn to speed 2 and mix 2 minutes. Continuing on speed 2, add remaining flour, 1/2 cup at a time, until dough clings to hook and cleans sides of bowl. Knead on speed 2 for 2 minutes longer.

Place in greased bowl, turning to grease top. Cover, let rise in warm place, free from draft, until doubled in bulk, about 1 hour.

Punch dough down and divide in half. Shape each half into a loaf and place in a greased 8-1/2 x 4-1/2 x 2-1/2-inch loaf pan. Cover; let rise in warm place, free from draft, until doubled in bulk, about 1 hour.

Bake at 350 degrees F for 30 to 35 minutes. Remove from pans immediately and cool on wire racks.

Yield: 2 loaves.

Provided by KitchenAid


All About Bread

This page originally published as a FoodDay article in 1997.

Copyright © 2007, Forkmedia LLC. All rights reserved.

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This page modified January 2007

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